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A Little Catechism on Logic

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I've been messing around with the concept of writing a set of catechisms on the philosophical sciences as a primer for further study. To get one introduced to the grammar of the discpline. I finished a bit on Logic and wanted to put it out there. Let me know what you think!


Q1: Why should we study logic?

A: We should study logic, first, to have certainty that our beliefs are correct, and, second, to discover new truths from what we already know.

Q2: What is logic?

A: “Logic is the science which directs the mind in the attainment of truth.”

Q3: What is a “science?”

A: We do not use “science” in the modern sense of a “physical science,” such as biology or chemistry, rather a science is “the knowledge of things in connection with their causes.”

Q4: How is logic a science?

A: Logic is a science because it does not only treat the rules of reasoning, but the causes or reasons why those rules work.

Q5: What are the parts of logic?

A: Logic has two parts, Formal Logic/Dialectics, and Material/Critical Logic.

Q6: What is Dialectics?

A: Dialectics studies the way in which our minds reason and, in particular, “the rules to be observed in reasoning or discussing.”

Q7: What is Critical Logic?

A: Critical Logic studies the reliability of our knowledge, especially the question of certainty.


Q8: What is the purpose of Dialectics?

A: Dialectics “teach pupils how to reason correctly themselves, and readily to detect flaws in the false reasonings of others.”

Simple Apprehensions

Q9: What is Simple Apprehension?

A: Simple Apprehension is “the act of perceiving an object intellectually, without affirming or denying anything concerning it.”

Q10: What is the product of Simple Apprehension?

A: Simple Apprehension forms an intellectual image, called a species.

Q11: What is the act of forming this species called?

A: Forming the species is called conception.

Q12: What is the product of this mental conception called?

A: The product of mental conception may be called a “concept, idea, or notion of the object.”